The growth of submucosal fibroid. occur just below the endometrium or uterine lining. They may grow big and upset the lining of uterus and may develop a stalk. When the fibroid develop a stalk it is called pedunculated submucosal fibroid.
In very few cases they protrude into the vaginal canal. National Taiwan University Hospital reported a case in which the submucosal fibroid inverted her uterus and blocked her bladder and colon. The blockage was so large that she was given laxatives to clear her bowels and catheter for passing urine.
Because they stretch the uterine lining, producing greater surface area, submucosal fibroids are responsible for a variety of mentrual problems. The increased surface area provides more room for the blood produced by the menstrual cycle to collect, leading to heavier bleeding, and possible bleeding in between periods.
In addition, large blood clots may form, and periods may have increased duration, lasting seven days or more. Some pain may be felt due to the movement of the large blood clots through the cervix.
Submucosal Fibroids are foreign material for the uterus which is beneath the endometrium and reacts against it by contracting the uterus. These contraction are not only painful but also end up with severe cramps.
The location of mucosal fibroid inhibit implantation and cause miscarriages which lead to fertility problem. A submucosal fibroid may block the fallopian tube through which the sperm to reach the egg. The finding of Wisconsin Fertility Institute says that submucosal fibroid cause more infertility compared to other kind of fibroids.
Hysteroscopy is often performed for patients with submucosal fibroids. A camera and narrow tube are inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. This procedure is becoming popular in Europe for removing small fibroids before they become so problematic that surgery would be required.
France’s Tenon Hospital published a case wherein a patient developed a fever, abdominal pain, and abnormal vaginal discharge, eighteen weeks after a Uterine Artery Embolization for a submucosal fibroid measuring five centimeters. She was found to have a fibroid formed of dying tissue infected with e. coli bacteria. Thus Uterine Artery Embolization is no longer recommended, as the associated risk factor is too great.
Different studies have proved the improved fertility rate after surgery of submucosal fibroids. The RTI International-University of North Carolina says that surgery was done for not only relieving pain but also for fertility problem.
Hysteroscopy carries a number of risks that may outweigh the benefits of symptom control. It can result in allergic reactions, infection, bleeding, or punctures to organs such as the uterus, bladder, or colon. Hysteroscopy may remove the initial fibroid, but it does not treat the cause of the fibroid formation, allowing the potential for regrowth.